Recently, the National Statistical Office works under Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) released the Women and Men in India 2020 report.
The current issue is twenty second in the series of the publication entitled "Women and Men in India.
It is annually brought out by the National Statistical Office (NSO).
Needs of Gender statistics
The need of Gender equality also reverberates through the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, where gender issues are duly addressed in different Goals.
Goal 5 of the SDGs is specifically dedicated for achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls.
Gender statistics provide the required data for tracking the attainments.
POPULATION AND RELATED STATISTICS
As per the report, India’s projected population in 2021 is 136.13 Crore with 48.65% female population.
The projected average annual exponential growth rate of population has declined from 1.63 in 2011 to 1.27 in 2016 and likely to further decline to 1.07 in 2021.
The projected sex ratio is likely to increase from 943 in 2011 to 948 in 2021.
At all India level, the sex ratio has increased from 933 in 2001 to 943 in 2011.
Notable increase in the sex ratio has been recorded in Delhi (5.7%), Chandigarh (5.3%) and Arunachal Pradesh (5.0%).
Daman &Diu has recorded decline of 13% in sex ratio.
The economically active age group (15-59) has the sex ratio of 944.
In 2011, sex ratio for religious groups viz. Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Jains was 939, 951, 1023, 903, 965 and 954 respectively.
Women’s mean age at marriage at all India level in 2018 is 22.3 years which showed an increase of 0.2 years from 2017.
In 2018, Age Specific Fertility Rate (ASFR) for the females belonging to the age group 25- 29 years was recorded highest at 146.4 while it was 122.9 for the females in the age group of 20- 24 years.
As per SRS 2018, the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) has decreased from 39 in 2014 to 32 in 2018.
Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) declined from 212 in 2007-09 to 113 in 2016-18.
As per SRS 2018, Total Fertility Rate (TFR) for literate population of rural India was observed at 2.3 as compared to 1.7 in urban areas.
As per SRS Report, Adolescent (15-19 years) Fertility rate at all India level has declined from 13.0 in 2017 to 12.2 in 2018.
As per the NFHS-5, 2019-20 Factsheet of 22 States, the percentage of women who had at least four Ante- Natal Care (ANC) visits during their pregnancy is lowest in Nagaland (20.7%) and highest in Goa (93%) followed by Lakshadweep (88.3%), Andaman & Nicobar Islands (83.4%).
As per the NFHS-5, 2019-20 Factsheet of 22 States, nearly 100% Institutional delivery were observed in the States/UT of Kerala, Goa and Lakshadweep and lowest in Nagaland (45.7%).
As per the NFHS-5, 2019-20 Factsheet of 22 States, highest obesity in males was observed in the Andaman & Nicobar Island (45.3%) followed by Lakshadweep (41.3%) and Ladakh (37.8%) whereas it was the lowest in Meghalaya (13.9%).
Similarly, in females, highest obesity was found in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Kerala each with 38.1% followed by Andhra Pradesh (36.3%) whereas lowest in Meghalaya (11.5 %).
New HIV incidence per 1000 uninfected population significantly decreased from 0.07 in 2017 to 0.05 in 2019.
The estimated new HIV incidence per 1000 uninfected population was observed highest in four north-eastern states of Mizoram (1.18), Nagaland (0.73), Manipur (0.34) and Meghalaya (0.23).
Participation in Economy
Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) 2018-19 results indicate that in the rural sector, the Worker Population Ratio (WPR) was 19.0 for females and 52.1 for males.
In Urban sector, the ratio is 14.5 for females and 52.7 for males.
In both rural and urban areas, WPRs for females were considerably lower than WPRs for males.
As per PLFS (2018-19), in the rural areas, both females and males, the maximum WPR for persons in the age group of 15 years and above has been obtained in Dadra & Nagar Haveli.
In urban areas, maximum female WPR has been obtained in Sikkim and maximum male WPR in Daman & Diu.
In urban sector, 54.7% females and 47.2% males were regular wage/salaried employee.
The share of workers in Agriculture Sector has shown declined trend since 43rd round of NSS to (1987-88) to PLFS (2018-19).
At all India level, the literacy rate has increased from 73 in 2011 to 77.7 in 2017.
It is observed that the female and male literacy rate in 2017 is at 70.3 and 84.7 respectively.
As per NSS 75th Round (July, 2017- June, 18), the literacy rate for persons of age 7 years and above is observed as 73.5 and 87.7 in rural and urban areas respectively.
The gender gap in rural is 16.5 while this gender gap is 9.4 in urban areas.
The Gender gap in the literacy rates was the highest for Rajasthan (23.2), followed by Bihar (19.2) and Uttar Pradesh (18.4).
In urban areas, the highest gender gap was observed in Bihar (20.2) followed by Rajasthan (16.5).
In rural areas, the highest gender gap was observed in Rajasthan (25.0) followed by Uttar Pradesh (20.1) and Bihar (19.9).
Participation in Decision Making
The representation of women in the Central Council of Ministers is 9.26% in 2020.
In 2019 Lok Sabha election, there were 437.8 million women electors. This is higher as compared to that of the 2014 election (397 million).
Highest women participation in the Panchayati Raj institutions was observed in the states of Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and Chhattisgarh.