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Post at: Sep 21 2021

Women and Men in India 2020

Recent Context

  • Recently, the National Statistical Office works under Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) released the Women and Men in India 2020 report. 
  • The current issue is twenty second in the series of the publication entitled "Women and Men in India.
  • It is annually brought out by the National Statistical Office (NSO).

Objectives

Needs of Gender statistics

  • The need of Gender equality also reverberates through the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, where gender issues are duly addressed in different Goals. 
  • Goal 5 of the SDGs is specifically dedicated for achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls. 
  • Gender statistics provide the required data for tracking the attainments.

Key Highlights

  • POPULATION AND RELATED STATISTICS
  • As per the report, India’s projected population in 2021 is 136.13 Crore with 48.65% female population. 
  • The projected average annual exponential growth rate of population has declined from 1.63 in 2011 to 1.27 in 2016 and likely to further decline to 1.07 in 2021. 
  • The projected sex ratio is likely to increase from 943 in 2011 to 948 in 2021.
  • At all India level, the sex ratio has increased from 933 in 2001 to 943 in 2011.
  • Notable increase in the sex ratio has been recorded in Delhi (5.7%), Chandigarh (5.3%) and Arunachal Pradesh (5.0%). 
  • Daman &Diu has recorded decline of 13% in sex ratio. 
  • The economically active age group (15-59) has the sex ratio of 944.
  • In 2011, sex ratio for religious groups viz. Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Jains was 939, 951, 1023, 903, 965 and 954 respectively.
  • Women’s mean age at marriage at all India level in 2018 is 22.3 years which showed an increase of 0.2 years from 2017. 

Health Statistics

  • In 2018, Age Specific Fertility Rate (ASFR) for the females belonging to the age group 25- 29 years was recorded highest at 146.4 while it was 122.9 for the females in the age group of 20- 24 years. 
  • As per SRS 2018, the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) has decreased from 39 in 2014 to 32 in 2018. 
  • Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) declined from 212 in 2007-09 to 113 in 2016-18. 
  • As per SRS 2018, Total Fertility Rate (TFR) for literate population of rural India was observed at 2.3 as compared to 1.7 in urban areas. 
  • As per SRS Report, Adolescent (15-19 years) Fertility rate at all India level has declined from 13.0 in 2017 to 12.2 in 2018. 
  • As per the NFHS-5, 2019-20 Factsheet of 22 States, the percentage of women who had at least four Ante- Natal Care (ANC) visits during their pregnancy is lowest in Nagaland (20.7%) and highest in Goa (93%) followed by Lakshadweep (88.3%), Andaman & Nicobar Islands (83.4%). 
  • As per the NFHS-5, 2019-20 Factsheet of 22 States, nearly 100% Institutional delivery were observed in the States/UT of Kerala, Goa and Lakshadweep and lowest in Nagaland (45.7%). 
  • As per the NFHS-5, 2019-20 Factsheet of 22 States, highest obesity in males was observed in the Andaman & Nicobar Island (45.3%) followed by Lakshadweep (41.3%) and Ladakh (37.8%) whereas it was the lowest in Meghalaya (13.9%). 
  • Similarly, in females, highest obesity was found in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Kerala each with 38.1% followed by Andhra Pradesh (36.3%) whereas lowest in Meghalaya (11.5 %).
  • New HIV incidence per 1000 uninfected population significantly decreased from 0.07 in 2017 to 0.05 in 2019. 
  • The estimated new HIV incidence per 1000 uninfected population was observed highest in four north-eastern states of Mizoram (1.18), Nagaland (0.73), Manipur (0.34) and Meghalaya (0.23).

Participation in Economy

  • Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) 2018-19 results indicate that in the rural sector, the Worker Population Ratio (WPR) was 19.0 for females and 52.1 for males.
  • In Urban sector, the ratio is 14.5 for females and 52.7 for males.
  • In both rural and urban areas, WPRs for females were considerably lower than WPRs for males. 
  • As per PLFS (2018-19), in the rural areas, both females and males, the maximum WPR for persons in the age group of 15 years and above has been obtained in Dadra & Nagar Haveli.
  • In urban areas, maximum female WPR has been obtained in Sikkim and maximum male WPR in Daman & Diu.
  • In urban sector, 54.7% females and 47.2% males were regular wage/salaried employee. 
  • The share of workers in Agriculture Sector has shown declined trend since 43rd round of NSS to (1987-88) to PLFS (2018-19). 

Education

  • At all India level, the literacy rate has increased from 73 in 2011 to 77.7 in 2017. 
  • It is observed that the female and male literacy rate in 2017 is at 70.3 and 84.7 respectively.
  • As per NSS 75th Round (July, 2017- June, 18), the literacy rate for persons of age 7 years and above is observed as 73.5 and 87.7 in rural and urban areas respectively. 
  • The gender gap in rural is 16.5 while this gender gap is 9.4 in urban areas.
  • The Gender gap in the literacy rates was the highest for Rajasthan (23.2), followed by Bihar (19.2) and Uttar Pradesh (18.4).
  • In urban areas, the highest gender gap was observed in Bihar (20.2) followed by Rajasthan (16.5). 
  • In rural areas, the highest gender gap was observed in Rajasthan (25.0) followed by Uttar Pradesh (20.1) and Bihar (19.9).

Participation in Decision Making

  • The representation of women in the Central Council of Ministers is 9.26% in 2020.
  • In 2019 Lok Sabha election, there were 437.8 million women electors. This is higher as compared to that of the 2014 election (397 million).
  • Highest women participation in the Panchayati Raj institutions was observed in the states of Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and Chhattisgarh.

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