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Post at: Sep 06 2021

79th Anniversary of Quit India Movement

Recent Context

  • Union Minister of Culture, Tourism, and Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER) inaugurated an exhibition on August 8, 2021 to mark 79th anniversary of the ‘Quit India Movement’ at National Archives of India in New Delhi.
  • The exhibition on 'Quit India Movement' has been put up at the National Archives of India as part of 'AzadiKaAmritMahotsav' being celebrated to commemorate 75 years of Independence.

About Quit India Mission

  • It was officially launched by the Indian National Congress (INC) led by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942.
  • Mahatma Gandhi delivered his speech at Mumbai's Gowalia Tank Maidan, also called August KrantiMaidan, on 8thAugust 1942.The movement gave the slogans ‘Quit India’ or ‘Bharat Chodo’. Gandhi gave the slogan to the people – ‘Do or die’.
  • In line with the Congress ideology, it was supposed to be a peaceful non-violent movement aimed at urging the British to grant India independence.
  • The Quit India Resolution was passed by the Congress Working Committee on 8 August 1942 in Bombay. Gandhi was named the movement’s leader.

Reasons for the Movement

  • Involvement of India in World War II: The Indian Nationalists were disgruntled with the Governor-General of India, Lord Linlithgow, as he brought India to the verge of World War II without consulting them.
  • Failure of Cripps Mission: Cripps Mission under Sir Stafford Cripps was failed because it offered India not complete freedom but the Dominion Status, along with the partition.
  • Lack of essential commodities: There was widespread discontent due to the shortage of essential commodities and rising prices of salt, rice, etc., and commandeering of boats in Bengal and Orissa.
  • Centralisation of several small movements: The Ground for the movement was already prepared by various associated and affiliated bodies of the Congress, like Forward Bloc, All India Kisan Sabha, and others.

Supporters of Britishers

  • The Britishers were supported by the Princely States, British Indian Army, Indian Civil Services, Viceroy’s Council (which had Indians in the majority), All India Muslim League, Indian Imperial Police.
  • The Hindu Mahasabha, RashtriyaSwayamsevakSangh (RSS) & Muslim League also opposed the Quit India Movement.

Outcome of the Movement

  • This movement had the active participation of women of the country.
  • A greater sense of unity and brotherhood emerged due to the Quit India Movement. Many students dropped out of schools and colleges, people gave up their jobs and withdrew money from the banks.
  • This movement also gave some future prominent leaders such as Biku Patnaik, Aruna Asif Ali, Ram Manohar Lohia, SuchetaKriplani, J.P. Narayan, etc.

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