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Post at: Aug 19 2021

Dholavira India's 40th world heritage site

Why in News?

  • On 27 July, 2021, UNESCO included Dhaulavira, the Harappan city in Gujrat as India's 40th World Heritage Site.
  • Along with Ramappa and Dholvira India now enter's the super - 40 club for world heritage inscriptions.
  • Now India has 32 cultural, 7 natural and one mixed (Khangchendzonga National Park) heritage.

About Dhdavira and its Locations

  • Dholavira is located on hillock near present day dholavira village in kutch district from which its gets its name.
  • It was discovered in 1968 by archaeologist Jagat Pati Joshi.
  • Tropic of cancer passes throgh Dholavira and it is located on khadir bet island in kachcha present wildlife sanctuary in the great Rann of kutch.

Archeological Findings

  • Artifacts that were found here include terra cotta, pottery, beads, gold, and copper ornaments, Seals, fish hooks and some imported vessels.
  • Remains of copper smetter indicate Harappans. who lived in dholavira, knew metallurgy.
  • It is believed that traders of Dholavira used to source copper from present day Rajsthan and oman and UAE.
  • It was hub of manufacturing jewellary made of shells and semi-precious stones.

Distinct Features of Dholavira Site

  • It is one of most remarkable and well preserved urbon settlements in South Asia - features

Decline of Dholavira 

  • Its decline also coincided with collapse of mesopotamia, indicating the integration of economies.
  • Harappans, who were maritime people, lost a huge market, affecting the local mining, manufacturing, marketing and export business once mesopotamia fell.
  • R.S. Bisht says that from 2000 BC, Dholavira entered a phase of severe aridity due to climate change and rivers like saraswati drying up.
  • Due to drought like situation, people started migrating towards ganges valley or towards south gujarat and futher beyond in Maharastra.
  • Bisht says the great Rann of kutch, which surrounds the khadir island on which dholavira is located, used to be navigable, but the sea receded gradually and the Rann became a mudflat.


  • Though it was excavated recently, the Dholavira site has remained free from encroachment in historical periods as in modern era.
  • Bisht says the UNESCO listing became possible because site was found free from any kind of encroachment.


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