- On 29th July, 2021 (Global Tiger day) Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC), Bhupendra Yadav announced that 14 tiger reserves in India have received the accreditation of Global Conservation Assured | Tiger Standards (CA|TS).
- He also released the report 'Status of Leopards, Co-predators and Megaherbivore-2018 on same day.
The 14 Tiger Reserves Are
- Orang, Manas and Kaziranga in Assam
- Kanha, Panna and Satpura in Madhya Pradesh
- Pench in Maharashtra
- Valmiki Tiger Reserve in Bihar
- Dudhwa in Uttar Pradesh
- Sunderbans in West Bengal
- Parambikulam in Kerala
- Bandipur Tiger Reserve of Karnataka
- Annamalai and Mudumalai in Tamil Nadu
India & Tiger Conservation
India began its Tiger conservation effort in a major way by launching project tiger.
Tiger Reserves in India
- Under Project Tiger, designated areas in states were reserved (mostly national parks) for conserving tigers. These designated areas are called Tiger Reserves.
- On July 5, MoEFCC approved India's 52nd tiger reserve : the 1052.12 sq. km. Ramgarh Vishdhari Tiger Reserve (RVTR), in Bundi District, Rajasthan
- Recently MoEFCC has announced that all tiger reserves will be upgraded to CA|TS standard.
- As per Tiger Census Report, 2018. Tiger population has increased from 2,2 26 in 2014 to 2967 in 2019.
- MP has highest number of tigers i.e. 526 tiger, followed by Karnataka (524) and Uttarakhand (442).
Increase in Tiger Population :
MP (71%)> Maharashtra (64%)> Karnataka (29%)
- India has almost 70% of tiger population of world.
Significance of Tiger Conservation
- By protecting Tigers, balance of ecosystem is also ensured as Tiger is prime predator on which whole ecosystem depend.
- Tiger is umbrella species whose conservation eventually leads to conservation of many other species such as ungulates, pollinators and other small animals.
- Any reserve which getts CA|TS status, follows highest standard of management for tiger conservation.
- Tiger is in IUCN red list i.e. endangered species, so its protection is must.
Challanges to Conservation
- Infrastructure development like railways, roadways and other infra in the tiger habitat threaten conservation effort.
- Poor interconnectivity between tiger reserves leads to poor gene exchange among tiger population.
- Due to loss of Natural habitat of tigers, huma-animal conflict occurs ending in loss of life of both human & Tiger.
- Constrained mentality of local communities regarding Tiger poaching as their job.
- Only laws and technical expertise are not enough, local communities must take active participation in conservation effort.
- Communities, local to reserves, should be provided with better jobs so that they do not take poaching as income source.
- Tiger conservation should be more dynamic and future ready for environmental changes.