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Post at: Jul 20 2022

World of Work Report : ILO

Recent Context

  • In May 2022, World of work – the ninth edition of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) Monitor was published.
  • The first edition was launched in year 2011.

Highlights of the Report 
Cutting Human Resources

  • The report finds that after significant gains made during the last quarter of 2021, the number of hours worked globally dropped in the first quarter of 2022.
  • This means that about 11.2 crore jobs might have been lost during this period, according to the report.
  • The fresh lockdowns in China, the conflict between Ukraine and Russia, and the global rise in the prices of food and fuel are cited as the main reasons for the findings.

Reduction in Working Hour

  • In the second quarter of 2020, the gender disparity in work hours worsened in both India and Lower-Middle-Income nations.
  • However, because India's initial level of hours worked by women was so low, the reduction in hours worked by women in India had only a little impact on the lower-middle-income nations' overall performance.

Divergence in Employment Recovery Trends

  • Employment levels had recovered in most high-income nations by the end of 2021, in keeping with the general disparity in hours worked, although deficits remained considerable in most middle-income economies.
  • By the end of 2021, the employment-to-population ratio divergence from the fourth quarter of 2019 had been substantially eradicated.

Informal employment/Sector

  • Informal sector was impacted more, especially for women, but has rebounded faster than formal employment.
  • Displaced workers from the formal economy, for instance, resort to informal employment to earn a living, while those already in informal employment remain at work.

Deviation Between Richer and Poorer Economies

  • The recovery is characterised by a widening and rising gap between wealthy and poorer economies.
  • While high-income nations saw an increase in hours worked in the first quarter of this year, low- and lower-middle-income economies had a 3.6 and 5.7 percent deficit, respectively, as compared to the pre-crisis benchmark.

India at a glance

  • On average, 12.3 women would have lost their jobs for every 100 women working before to the pandemic across the time covered by the paper.
  • The comparable statistic for every 100 males, on the other hand, would have been 7.5.
  • As a result, the pandemic appears to have worsened the country's already significant gender disparities in work participation.
  • As a result of the Covid-19 women's work in India has decreased, particularly in fields such as healthcare.

Measurements to be taken

  • Providing timely and effective assistance to maintain the purchasing power of labor income.
  • Assistance to the groups and sectors most affected by the crisis, especially the disadvantaged workers and those moving from informal to formal economy jobs.
  • Transforming the moral and political aspiration of “no one to be left behind” into concrete action.
  • Macroeconomic policies are needed to combat inflation emerging as a policy challenge.
  • Well-designed sectoral policies are needed to promote the creation of decent jobs, while aiming at formalization, sustainability, and inclusiveness.

International Labor Organization

  • Established in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League of Nations.
  • Became the first affiliated specialized agency of the UN in 1946.
  • Group of 187 member States (India is a member).
  • Aim to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men across the globe.
  • Received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1969.
  • Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
     

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